Skip to main content

Full text of "Alaska as it was and Is. 1865-1895"

See other formats


Google 



This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 

to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing tliis resource, we liave taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attributionTht GoogXt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for in forming people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http: //books .google .com/I 



308 
.■D14 

1)A 






vxis.. 



r < 




1 

- . - 1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 






r'.: 


/ 


:::^ 


" 


1 


1 


1 






















1 
















4 


J 



UNIVERSITY or yniCMIGAN 



iif PRKSBNTKD BY 

iiii 

m 

% 



% 



General Library 



OP 



m 

m 

m 
m 
m 
m 
m 
m 
m 
m 
m 



>.,..H..J.flXL I 



f 



A^^va-./J^..^ 189.6. 






■^ 



;?^ r" 



"=10% 



I 



( 



I 



IV' 



i 

I 

f 



PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON 

BULLETIN VOL. XIII, pp. 123-162 



ALASKA AS IT WAS AND IS 

1865-1895 



BY 



WILLIAM HEALEY BALL 



Annual Presidential Address delivered before the Philosophical 
Society of Washington, December 6, 1895 



WASHINGTON 

PUBLISHED BY THE SOCIETY 

December, 1895 



1 









.i 



f 



. / 



ALASKA AS IT WAS AND IS: 

1865-1895. V/ 

BY 

William Healey Dall. 




[The annual presidential address, delivered before the Philosophical 

Society of Washington, December 6, 1895.] 



In 1864 the apparent hopelessness of the attempts to 
establish a workable transatlantic telegraph cable led those 
interested in telegraphic communication with Europe to 
consider other means of attaining that end. It was thought 
that a short cable across Bering strait might be made to 
work, and no doubt was entertained of the possibility of 
maintaining the enormously extended land lines which 
should connect the ends of this cable with the systems 
already in operation in Europe and the United States. A 
company was formed for this purpose, and an expedition to 
undertake the explorations necessary to determine the route 
was organized. The cooperation of the Russian and Ameri- 
can governments was secured and the necessary funds sub- 
scribed. Searching for properly qualified explorers, the 
promoters of the enterprise consulted the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution and were brought into communication with Robert 
Kennicott, of Chicago, a young and enthusiastic naturalist, 
who had already made some remarkable journeys in the 
Hudson Bav territories in the interest of science. His ex- 
plorations had taken him to the most remote of the Hudson 
Bay posts — Fort Yukon, on the river of the same name — 
regardless of every kind of hardship, privation, and isola- 
tion. His ardor was so contagious that before returning to 
civilization he had communicated it to almost every one of 

18— Bull. Phil. Soc., Wash., Vol. 13. (123) 



124 BALL. 

the hard-headed fur traders in that remote and inhospitable . 
region, and for years afterward bird skins, eggs, ethnological 
specimens, and collections in every branch of natural his- 
tory poured from the frozen north into the Smithsonian 
Museum by hundreds and thousands. 

When Kennicott, after traveling for months on snow- 
shoes, sledges, or bateaux, stood at last on the steep bluff at 
Fort Yukon, he saw the yellow flood of the great river surg- 
ing by the most remote outpost of civilization and disap- 
pearing to the westward in a vast and unknown region. 
An uninhabited gap of hundreds of miles lay between him 
and the nearest known native settlement to the west. Far 
in the north the midnight sun lighted up the snowy peaks 
of the Romanzoff mountains, whose further slope it was be- 
lieved gave on the Polar sea. No one knew where the 
Yukon met. the ocean. On most maps of that day a large 
river called the Colvile, found by Simpson on the Arctic 
coast as he journeyed toward Point Barrow, was indicated 
as the outlet of the Yukon watershed. South of the Roman- 
zoff mountains for an unknown distance vast tundras, 
scantily wooded with larch and spruce, the breeding grounds 
of multitudes of water fowl, intersected by many streams, 
but level as a prairie, extended to the west. 

The native population of this region, as far as known, 
had always been scanty, and an epidemic of scarlet fever, 
introduced some years before through contact with other 
tribes trading to the coast, had swept them absolutely out of 
existence. Not an individual was left, and the nomadic 
natives who reached Fort Yukon from the east and south- 
east hesitated to approach the hunting grounds, where the 
mysterious pestilence might linger still. 

Obliged to terminate his explorations here, Kennicott 
returned, after months of weary travel, to the United States, 
but cherished the hope of some day penetrating the terra 
incognita on whose borders he had been obliged to pause 
and turn away. The dream of his life was thereafter the 
exploration of Russian America, the discovery of its fauna, 



< 



1 



ALASKA AS IT WAS AND IS. 125 

and the determination of its relations to the fauna of Siberia 
and Japan. The group of young zoologists which gathered 
about him at the Chicago Academy of Sciences, an institu- 
tion of which Kennicott was practically the creator, was 
frequently roused to enthusiasm by impromptu lectures on 
the problems to be solved, the specimens to be collected, and 
the adventures to be anticipated in that virgin territory. 

The need of the telegraph company for one familiar with 
life and conditions in the north brought him the long sought 
opportunity, and he undertook to lead the exploration, pro- 
vided he was permitted to utilize it for science to the fullest 
extent commensurate with the attainment of the objects of 
the expedition. He stipulated that he should be permitted 
to select a party of six persons who should be qualified to 
make scientific observations and collections in the intervals 
of other work, but who should hold themselves ready to do 
any work required by the promoters of the enterprise, even 
to digging post-holes for the line if called upon. 

His terms were accepted, and the scientific corps of the 
expedition organized and started for San Francisco. Here 
two of the members were detailed to join the party engaged 
in exploring the route through British Columbia ; the others, 
of whom the speaker was one, accompanied Kennicott to the 
north. 

In July, 1865, the expedition entered the bay of Sitka and 
our acquaintance with Russian America began. 

Sitka was then a stockaded town of about 2000 inhab- 
itants, with a village of more than 1500 Indians outside 
the walls. The settlement contained a Greek church, a 
Lutheran chapel, shipyards, warehouses, barracks, a club- 
house for the officers, a sawmill, a foundry where brass, 
copper, and iron castings of moderate size were made, beside 
numerous dwellings. All the buildings were log structures, 
their outer walls washed with yellow ochre, the roofs chiefly 
of metal painted red. High above the rest, on an elevated 
rock, rose a large building, in which the governor of the 
Russian colonies had his residence. This, known to visitors 



126 DALL. 

as the " castle," was built of squared logs, with two stories and 
a cupola and was defended by a battery. The warm colors 
of the buildings, above which rose the pale green spire and 
bulbous domes of the Greek church, seen against steep, snow- 
tipped mountains densely clothed with sombre forests of 
spruce, produced a picturesque eflfect unique among Ameri- 
can settlements. 

Outside the walls, along the beach, was a long row of large 
Indian houses, low and wide, without windows, built of im- 
mense planks painfully hewn out of single logs with stone 
adzes, whose marks could still be distinctly seen. They were 
entered by small, low doors, rounded above, so that he who 
came in must bend to an attitude ill suited to defense. The 
front of each house was painted with totemic emblems in red 
ochre. Their dimensions were sometimes as much as 40 by 
60 feet, and the area within formed one large room, with the 
rafters visible overhead, the middle portion floored only with 
bare earth, on which the fire was built, the smoke escaping 
through a large square hole in the roof. On either side were 
raised platforms with small partitioned retreats like state- 
rooms, each sheltering a single family. As many as one 
hundred people sometimes dwelt in one of these houses. The 
only ornaments were totemic carvings, generally against the 
wall opposite the entrance; overhead hung nets, lines, and 
other personal property drying in the smoke along with strips 
of meat or fish and fir branches covered with the spawn of 
herring. 

On the bank, which rose behind the houses, densely cov- 
ered with herbage of a vivid green, were seen curious box- 
like tombs, often painted in gay colors or ornamented with 
totemic carving's or wooden effigies. These tombs sheltered 
the ashes of their cremated dead. On the beach in front of 
the houses lay numerous canoes whose graceful shape and 
admirable workmanship extorted praises from the earliest 
as well as the later explorers of the coast. When not in 
use these were always sheltered from the sun by branches of 
spruce and hemlock or tarpaulins of refuse skins. Among 



>v 



ALASKA AS IT WAS AND IS. 127 

the canoes innumerable wolfish dogs snarled, fought, or 
played the scavenger. 

The natives still retained to some extent their original 
style of dress, modified now and then by a Russian kerchief 
or a woolen shirt. As a rule, they were barefooted, stolid, 
sturdy, uncompromising savages, who looked upon the white 
man with a defiance but slightly tempered by fear and a 
desire to trade. The mission church of that day was built 
into the stockade, with doors entering it both from the In- 
dian and the Russian town. When services were held the 
outer door was opened, the town door closed and stoutly 
barred. Once these fierce clansmen had endeavored to rush 
into and take the settlement when the door leading inward 
had been left unfastened. From the time when the first 
white men to touch these shores, Chirikoflf's boat's crew in 
1741, were without provocation massacred, these natives 
had not failed to maintain their reputation for courage, 
greed, treachery, and intelligence. 

These conditions outside the settlement necessitated a 
military discipline within it. Sentries regularly paced the 
walks by day and night, the sullen Indians were systematic- 
ally watched, and the little batteries kept in readiness for use. 

The needs of the business of the company made Sitka a 
lively manufacturing town, in spite of the multitudinous 
Russian holidays. Society there was like a bit of old Russia, 
with the manners, vices, and sturdy qualities of sailor, peas- 
ant, and courtier fully exemplified within its narrow limits. 
A fishery at Deep lake, a few miles away, furnished fresh 
salmon in abundance, which was freely distributed to all 
comers twice or thrice a week during the season. Thecom- 
pany furnished each employe with certain stated rations of 
flour, sugar, tea, etc., at fixed prices ; the harbor, within a 
few yards of the stockade, contained abundance of seafish, 
and the Indians' price for a deer, skinned and dressed, was a 
silver dollar or a glass of vodka. The primeval forest came 
close to the town ; the demand for firewood and timber had 
made little impression upon it. White settlements in the 



128 T>ALL. 

Alexander archipelago were confined to a few small fortified 
trading posts. Fort Wrangell and Fort Tongass alone could 
be regarded as approximately permanent. The parties sent 
out to trade or hunt worked from a temporary camp or an 
armed vessel as a base, and, owing to the ill-feeling which 
existed between the natives and Russians, smuggling and 
illicit trading were rife. Missionary effort did not exist out- 
side of Sitka, and even there amounted to little more than 
the bribery of some greedy savage to perform for a consid- 
eration some rites which he did not understand. 

The law of Russia which prevented a permanent severance 
of a subject from his native soil (except for crime) operated 
to encourage temporary unions of the company's servants 
with native women. Marriages were not allowed between 
full-blooded Russians and natives, as at the expiration of his 
term of service the Russian must return to his own parish 
in Russia, and the native could not be carried away from the 
place of her nativity. After the transfer of Alaska to the 
United States many of these Russians elected to remain in 
the country and were married to the mothers of their chil- 
dren; but at the time of our first visit the most surprising 
social fact to us was the perfect equality which appeared to 
subsist between these irregular partners and the married 
women who had come from Russia. So far as we could per- 
ceive, both classes behaved with equal propriety and were 
treated with equal respect by the community, and the only 
restriction which the authorities insisted upon was that no 
Russian should take to himself a partner who had not been 
duly baptized. The issue of these unions, being of Alaskan 
birth, Were free to marry in the country, and with their de- 
scendants constituted the class to which the Russians gave 
the name of "Creoles." Some of them rose to eminence in 
the service, and one at least became governor of the colonies. 

At the time of our visit the business of the colony was ex- 
clusively the development of the fur trade. Agriculture was 
confined to a trifling amount of gardening very imperfectly 
performed. The fisheries were utilized only to supply food 



^* 



ALASKA AS IT WAS AND IS. 129 

for the people in the company's employ, or to insure sub- 
sistence for the natives whose time was devoted to hunting 
the sea otter or preparing skins for the authorities. The fur 
trade of southeastern Alaska was not very productive. The 
natives were disposed to trade with the Hudson Bay Com- 
pany or illicit traders rather than with the Russians, partly 
because they obtained better prices for their skins and partly 
because the Russians refused to trade intoxicating liquors, 
while the outsiders were not troubled with any scruples in 
such matters. The furs were divided by the Russians into 
two classes — the precious furs, such as the fox, sea otter, and 
sable, which were strictly reserved for the company, a certain 
proportion being imperial perquisites of the Russian court, 
and the cheaper sorts, which might be used by the com- 
pany's employes for winter clothing, and were sold at a fixed 
price to them for this purpose. This included the muskrat, 
mink. Parry's marmot or ivrashka, the fur seal, and some 
others. Dry skins of the fur seal were sold at the company's 
warehouse for 12J cents apiece, the modern plucking and 
dyeing of the fur, invented by an American, Raymond, of 
Albany, not having reached a perfection sufficient to attract 
the fashionable world. 

The European trading goods and supplies were mainly 
brought by ship from Hamburg, the 3ame vessel taking the 
annual load of skins to China, where an exchange was made 
for tea and silk, which were carried back to Europe. Flour 
was imported latterly from California and some goods were 
brought from Aian and other ports on the Okhotsk sea in 
the early days of the business, but in 1865 this trade had 
come to a standstill or nearly so. In mineral resources al- 
most nothing was done ; a little coal was taken out at Cook's 
inlet for local uses, and the exportation of ice from Kadiak 
to California was carried on under a lease by an American 
company. The presence of gold, iron, and graphite was 
known to the authorities, but prospecting was not encour- 
aged, as it was supposed the development of mineral re- 
sources might react unfavorably on the fur trade. 



- - -^- : i - V, 



130 BALL. 

The first codfisherman visited the Shumagin islands in 
1865. The whale fishery was wholly in the hands of Ameri- 
cans and other foreigners, uncontrolled by the Russians, and 
the timber was used only for local purposes. 

The main business of the company was done at its conti- 
nental trading posts in the northern part of the territory 
and in the Aleutian chain ; its authority in the territory 
was as absolute as the presence of the uncivilized tribes would 
admit. Under the guns of the trading posts the company 
was master ; out of their range every man was a law unto 
himself. 

After transacting its business at Sitka the expedition 
touched at the island of Unga to examine a coal mine, at 
Unalashka,the PribiloflF islands, and at Saint Michael's, Nor- 
ton sound, where Kennicott and the explorers for the Yukon 
were landed. The speaker was put in charge of the scien- 
tific work of the expedition and remained with the fleet, 
visiting Bering strait, where landing places for the cable 
were searched for ; and Petropavlovsk, the capital of Kam- 
chatka, where the Siberian parties were provided for ; and 
then the vessels returned to San Francisco. 

The following year, on returning to Saint Michael's, we 
were met by the news of Kennicott's death from heart disease, 
brought on by over-exertion and anxiety. The Yukon ex- 
ploration was still incomplete, though information received 
made it certain that the Kwikhpak of the Russians and the 
Yukon and Pelly of the English were one and the same 
river. It remained to emphasize this information by a con- 
tinuous exploration which should cover the unmapped por- 
tion of this mighty stream. The scientific work in zoology 
projected by Kennicott had been left by his premature death 
unrealized. The speaker determined to carry out these plans 
and was authorized to remain in the country for that pur- 
pose. 

As soon as sufficient snow had fallen to render sledging 
practicable a portage from Norton sound to the Yukon river 
was traversed, a small boat transported on a sledge for use 



Tx 



; >.: ••; ... . . 
v» 't • • • : 



ALASKA AS IT WAS AND IS. 131 

during the following summer, and the Yukon ascended on 
the ice to the trading post at Nulato, a distance of some three 
hundred miles. Here the party of five wintered and in 
March divided into two parts — one, under Frank Ketchum, 
taking sledges with the intention of traversing the unknown 
region on the ice and after reaching Fort Yukon to ascend 
further in canoes; the other to await the break-up of the ice 
in May and follow in the skin canoe, so as to rescue the first 
party should they have failed to carry out their plans. Both 
projects were successfully carried out and the two parties re- 
united at Fort Yukon on the 29th of June, 1867. They 
returned by the whole length of the river and reached Saint 
Michael's on the 25th of July. Here astonishing news 
awaited us : The Atlantic cable was a triumphant success, 
the United States were in negotiation for the purchase of 
Russian America, our costly enterprise was abandoned, and 
all hands were to take ship for California. 

The collections and observations had been but half com- 
pleted. The natural history of the Upper Yukon and the 
borders of Norton sound had been pretty well examined, 
but the vast delta of the Ybkon, with its wonderful fauna 
of fishes and water birds, its almost unknown native tribes 
and geographic features, remained practically untouched. 
I immediately determined to remain and devote the follow- 
ing year to the unfinished work. An arrangement with 
the Russians was made and this plan carried out. In the 
autumn of 1868 I left Norton sound for California on a 
trading vessel and returned to civilization. 

At the time our explorations of the Yukon began this 
immense region was occupied by two or three thousand In- 
dians, many of whom had never seen a white man. The 
Russian establishments on the Yukon were only three in 
number, hundreds of miles apart, a;id chiefly manned by 
Creole servants of the company, not over a dozen at each 
post. An inefficient priest, with a few alleged converts, con- 
ducted as a mission of the Greek church the only religious 
establishment in the whole Yukon valley. The industries of 

19— Bull. Phil. Soc. Wash., Vol. 13. 



132 BALL. 

the region comprised trapping, hunting, and fishing ; the first 
for revenue, the others for subsistence. The means of navi- 
gation were birch-bark canoes and small skin-boats. Once 
a year the clumsy barkass of the Russians, loaded with tea, 
flour, and trading goods, was laboriously forced upstream 
to the Nulato post, returning with a load of furs. The tribes 
of Eskimo extraction occupied the lower river banks from 
the sea to the Shageluk slough, above which they were re- 
placed by Indians of the Tinneh stock. These were to be 
found in scattered villages at various points on the river or 
its tributaries, where the abundance of fish offered means of 
subsistence. The extreme limit of population was to be 
found at the junction with the Yukon of the large river 
Tanan4, where the island of Nuklukay6t was recognized as 
neutral ground, where delegations from all the tribes met in 
the spring for their annual market of furs. Here our party 
had the interesting experience of meeting the delegation of 
Tanand Indians in full native costume of pointed shirts and 
trousers of dressed deerskin adorned with black and white 
beads, the nasal septum pierced to carry an ornament of 
dentalium shell, their long hair formed into a bundle of 
locks, stiff with tallow, wound with beads, dusted with pow- 
dered hematite and the chopped down of swans. The ranks 
of frail birch canoes were accurately aligned, and their pad- 
dles rose and fell with military precision. When they 
rounded the point of the island and approached the beach, 
where stood the first white men they had ever seen, they 
were met by a complimentary salvo from the guns of the 
Indians already on shore, and responded by wild yells and 
graceful waving of their paddles. 

The waters of the Tanaud had never known an explorer 
and its geography was wholly unknown. Never again will 
it be possible for an ethnologist to see upon the Yukon such 
a body of absolutely primitive Indians untarnished by the 
least breath of civilization. 

Above Nuklukay6t the Yukon enters a canon, known as the 
Lower Ramparts, above which the depopulated area already 



ALASKA AS IT WAS AND IS. 133 

alluded to extends to the site of Port Yukon, near the British 
boundary on the Arctic circle. 

The noble stream I have described extends, including 
windings, about 1,600 miles from Fort Yukon to the sea. 
The valley is sometimes wide and low, sometimes narrow 
and contracted by low, wooded mountains. Everywhere 
until the delta is approached the banks are wooded. There 
are many tributaries, none of which were then explored, and 
on either side of the main artery the land stretched unex- 
plored for hundreds of miles. Not another person speaking 
any European tongue except the Russian was resident in all 
this territory during the second year of my sojourn. Outside 
of the three trading posts, not a native had ever bought a 
pound of flour or an ounce of tea. The use of woolen cloth- 
ing had hardly begun, and soap was a rare and costly luxury. 
I made the first candles ever molded on the Yukon, and 
but for the lack of hardwood ashes to furnish alkali would 
have tried my hand at soap. People lived on game and 
fish. The caribou was plentiful in the absence of rifles ; the 
moose was not yet exterminated ; the warm days of spring 
brought incalculable multitudes of ducks and geese, to say 
nothing of other water fowl ; the Arctic rabbit and the ptar- 
migan were a constant resource, aud the rivers and lakes in 
many places teemed with fish. Clothing was made of deer- 
skin and sewed with sinew; the ornaments were fringes from 
the gray wolf or wolverine. Undergarments were occasion- 
ally made of cotton bought from the traders, but more 
usually from the skins of fawns. At one village during the 
season for taking them I saw 4300 fawn skins hanging up 
to dry. Such reckless destruction has since borne its natural 
fruit. It was only at certain localities even then that deer 
were plentiful. The main staple of subsistence was fish. 
During the summer the river was studded with traps for 
salmon; in winter the traps were set in the ice, and under 
favorable conditions furnished a steady supply of white-fish, 
burbot, pike, grayling, and the great red sucker. The salmon 
were cleaned, split into three parts connected at the tail, 



134 DALL. 

and dried in the open air by millions ; they furnished food 
for man and dog, and when well cured were not unpalatable. 
Vegetable food was almost unknown, except in the form of 
berries. The green flower stalks of Rumex and Archangelica 
were occasionally eaten, and the dwellers by the sea some- 
times gathered dulse, but for practical purposes the diet was 
meat and fish. 

It was known that gold existed in the sands of the river, 
but the inexperienced fur traders looked for it in the bars 
of the main river and not in the side canons of small streams, 
where it has since been found in such abundance. The real 
riches of the Yukon valley then lay in its furs. In a 
garret at Fort Yukon the post trader showed me with par- 
donable pride 300 silver fox skins of the first quality. Beau- 
tiful in themselves and for what they represented — ^gold, 
praises, and promotion in the service — one might almost 
forget that some of the company's servants at this post had 
not tasted bread or butter, sugar or tea for seven long years. 

The region of the delta was and is still remarkable as 
being the breeding place of myriads of water fowl, some of 
which are peculiar to the Alaskan region. Nearly one hun- 
dred species gather there, and one of them comes all the 
way from north Australia, by the coasts of China and Japan, 
to lay its eggs and rear its young in the Yukon delta. It 
is also remarkable for the abundance of the great king 
salmon, sometimes reaching a weight of 130 pounds, a fish 
less plentiful further up and which does not ascend to the 
headwaters of the river. 

All this immense territory has since been penetrated by 
traders and prospectors. Stern-wheel steamers have defied 
the current, and ply regularly on the river during the sea- 
son of open water. Mission schools are numerous and rein- 
deer scarce. The fur trade wanes, while many thousands of 
dollars in gold dust have been laboriously extracted from 
the gravels. The natives buy tea and flour and dress in 
woolen clothing. With the miners whisky has reached the 
wilderness, and the sound of the American language is 



ALASKA AS IT WAS AND IS. 135 

heard in the laud. Tame reindeer have been imported from 
Siberia with a view to their domestication by the Eskimo 
of the Arctic coast, who are on the verge of starvation at 
frequent intervals, owing to the destruction of their food 
supply by the whalers and walrus-hunters and the intro- 
duction of Winchester rifles for killing the wild deer. With 
the alternative of starvation as a stimulus, the chances of 
success ought to be good. 

In carrying out the plans which Kennicott had medi- 
tated, but which death had stayed, I had succeeded in gath- 
ering rather abundant material for my friends, the orni- 
thologists, botanists, ethnologists, and so on, but to do it I had 
to put aside the work in the department in which I person- 
ally was most interested. The shores of Norton sound and 
the tundra of the Yukon valley offered little in the way of 
moUusks or other invertebrates. The desire to extend our 
knowledge of the geographical distribution of the sea fauna 
led me to propose a further exploration of the coasts of the 
territory, especially of the Aleutian chain, under the aus- 
pices of the United States Coast Survey. A geographical 
reconnaissance was undertaken and carried on during five 
j'ears, investigating magnetism and hydrology, making 
charts, tidal observations, meteorological and hypsometric 
notes. In all this I was ably seconded by my companions, 
Mark W. Harrington and Marcus Baker, who need no in- 
troduction to this audience. At the same time and without 
interfering with the regular work the dredge was kept con- 
stantly busy, and on my return from field-work the material 
for the studies I had so long looked forward to was actually 
gathered. 

The region whicfi includes the Aleutian chain and other 
islands west of Kadiak presents a striking contrast to the 
densely wooded mountains and shining glaciers of the Sit- 
kan region to the east and the rolling tundra cut by myriad 
rivers in the north. Approached by sea, the Aleutian islands 
seem gloomy and inhospitable. Omnipresent fog wreaths 
hang about steep cliffs of dark volcanic rock. An angry 



136 DALL. 

surf vibrates to and fro amid outstanding pinnacles, where 
innumerable sea birds wheel and cry. The angular hills 
and long slopes of talus are not softened by any arborescent 
veil. The infrequent villages nestle behind sheltering bluffs, 
and are rarely visible from without the harbors. In winter 
all the heights are wrapped in snow, and storms of terrific 
violence drive commerce from the sea about them. 

Once pass within the harbors during summer and the repel- 
lent features of the landscape seem to vanish. The moun- 
tain sides are clothed with -soft yet vivid green and brilliant 
with many flowers. The perfume of the spring blossoms is 
often heavy on the air. The lowlands are shoulder high with 
herbage, and the total absence of trees gives to the land- 
scape an individuality all its own. No more fascinating 
prospect do I know than a view of the harbor of Unalashka 
from a hilltop on a sunny day, with the curiously irregular, 
verdant islands set in a sea of celestial blue, the shorelines 
marked by creamy surf, the ravines by brooks and water- 
falls, the occasional depressions by small lakes shining in 
the sun. 

The sea abounds with fish ; the offshore rocks are the re- 
sort of sea-lions and formerly of sea-otters ; the streams afford 
the trout-fisher abundant sport, and about thei'r mouths the 
red salmon leap and play. In October the hillsides offer 
store of berries, and in all this land there is not a poisonous 
reptile or dangerous wild animal of any sort. 

The inhabitants of these islands are an interesting and 
peculiar race. Their characteristics have been well de- 
scribed by Veniaminoff, who knew and loved them. By the 
.testimony of their language, physique, and culture they are 
shown to be a branch of the Eskimo stock, driven from the 
continent, as the shell-heaps reveal, at a very ancient date 
and isolated since from contact with anv other native race, 
specialized and developed by their peculiar environment to 
a remarkable degree. Conquered by the Russian hunters of 
the eighteenth century, practically enslaved for a century, 
their ancient religion frankly abandoned for the rites of the 



ALASKA AS IT WAS AND IS. 137 

Greek church, an apathetic reticence replaced the rollicking 
good nature characteristic of the Eskimo people. In 1865 
they were supported by the company ; the men shipped oflF 
in hunting parties in search of the sea-otter were separated 
from their families sometimes for many months and re- 
warded according to their success; but, while the company 
provided food for all who needed it, the time of the Aleut 
was not his own. I have already mentioned that the fur- 
seal at that time had very little commercial value. The 
fishery on the Pribilofi^ islands was conducted by Aleuts 
under supervision, and the skins were mostly shipped to 
China or Europe. It has been noted as surprising that the 
value of the fur-seal fishery is so little referred to in the argu- 
ments urging the acquisition of the territory in 1867. This 
was not an oversight ; the. seal fisheries at that time were 
not especially lucrative, and the millions which the industry 
has since produced could not have been predicted in 1867. 

At the time of my first visit and until very recently the 
sole productive industry of the Aleut people consisted in the 
sea-otter hunting and the fur-seal fishery. Much of their 
subsistence was and is obtained from the natural products 
of the region — fish, wild fowl, and the flesh of marine mam- 
mals. The custom of preparing clothing from the skins of 
birds and animals has long been abandoned. The Aleut and 
his family now dress in clothing of wool or cotton, burn 
kerosene in an American lamp, and cook their food on an 
iron stove. The bar4bora or native hut, built of sod and 
stones, has been generally replaced by a frame cottage, and 
the means for supplying these artificial wants has been ob- 
tained from the income derived from the seal and sea-otter. 
Now that these animals are approaching extinction, at least 
from a commercial standpoint, the question of how to pro- 
vide even the modest income needed for these people is a 
serious one. While it is not yet settled that the half-starved 
Eskimo of the northern coast will adopt the new mode of 
life necessitated by the care and maintenance of large herds 
of tame reindeer, and the success of that experiment is still 



138 PALL. 

» 

questionable, there is no doubt in my mind that the intro- 
duction of the deer into the Aleutian chain is not only per- 
fectly practicable, but that it offers the only solution of the 
problem of providing for the Aleuts which seems to possess 
the elements necessary for success. There are no predacious 
animals to molest the deer, like the wolves of the mainland; 
there is an abundant supply of forage, and the climate and 
conditions are those that the animal is known to thrive in, 
A herd introduced a few years ago into Bering island, on 
the Russian coast, and simply let alone and protected from 
dogs, has increased very much in number and will soon 
aflFord skins and tallow for export. There is no obvious rea- 
son why on most of the Aleutian islands equally good re- 
sults should not be obtained. Some few deer were intro- 
duced upon the island of Amaknak, in the bay of Unalashka, 
a few years since, but they were the property of whites, not 
natives, were not protected from the numerous dogs of an 
adjacent settlement, and have not thriven. 

When the time comes, and it seems not far away, when 
the natives realize that they must depend on the deer to re- 
place the vanishing fur animals as a source of income, and 
when they can acquire property in deer, I believe the result 
will be all that could be wished. 

In closing this summary of early conditions in the Terri- 
tory and of the events which enabled them to be observed, 
it may not be out of place to summarize also the results of 
the scientific work of those years. Of course, only the more 
important points can be alluded to. As the Western Union 
Telegraph Expedition ended by a withdrawal from the 
country, and was the occasion of a large expenditure of 
money with no return to its promoters, no general report 
was ever officially prepared, and the work of the scientific 
corps was made known piecemeal in various technical jour- 
nals. The published results were associated in the minds of 
students with the individual authors rather than with the 
expedition as a whole. The subsequent work under the 
auspices of the Coast Survey, which in fact grew out of the 



ALASKA AS IT WAS AND IS. 139 

work done or attempted in the earlier exploration, has been, 
SO far as it was geographical, regarded very naturally as inr 
cidental to the usual work of that bureau, and so far as it 
has been of other sorts has not been connected in the public 
mind with any organization in particular. The fact that 
the Revenue Marine, the Army and Navy, the Signal Serv- 
ice, and several unoflBcial organizations or individuals have 
carried out praiseworthy explorations with most excellent 
results has led to the further obscuration of the earlier work 
as a connected whole. I believe no one of those engaged in 
it has yet attempted to enumerate the results, either general 
or scientific, directly or indirectly consequent upon the expe- 
dition. The present summary may therefore serve a useful 
purpose. 

The most important result which indirectly came about 
from the explorations by our parties was the acquisition of 
Alaska by the United States. While the transfer might have 
been proposed and the question discussed if there never had 
been any Telegraph expedition, yet I believe, in view of the 
opposition which existed in Congress and the cheap ridicule 
of part of the daily press, that if it had not been for the in- 
terest excited by the expedition and the information which 
its members were able to furnish to the friends of the pur- 
chase the proposition would have failed to win approval. 

But, leaving such questions apart and considering merely 
the scientific results, the expedition made weighty additions 
to geographical knowledge. To it we owe the first mapping 
of the Yukon from actual exploration, adding to the list of 
American rivers one of the largest known. Old maps of 
North America made the Rocky mountains extend in nearly 
a straight line northward to the- Polar sea. Our explora- 
tions showed that the mountains curved to the westward, 
leaving a gap to the northward through which the Canadian 
fauna reached to the shores of the Pacific and Bering sea. 
The general faunal distribution of life at this end of the con- 
tinent in its broader sense was settled then and there. A 
general knowledge of the country, till then practically un- 

20— Bull. Phil. Soc, Wash., Vol. 13. 



140 DALL. 

known except to a few fur traders, was obtained and made 
public. To the Coast Survey work of 1871-74 we owe some 
forty charts, a large proportion of which are of harbors or 
passages ;never previously surveyed. In preparing a Coast 
Pilot of southeastern Alaska, while that part of it useful to 
navigators was in the nature of things rapidly superseded, 
yet the work, being conscientious and thorough in the 
matter of names, practically settled the geographic nomen- 
clature of that region for all time. The myth of a branch of 
the Kuro Siwo or Japanese warm current running north 
through Bering sea and strait and producing open water in 
the Polar sea still lingers in some dark corners of geographic 
literature; but our researches, covering actual observation, 
the whole literature, and scores of old manuscript logbooks, 
conclusively show that there is no such current as that 
referred to, and that the currents which do exist have no 
connection whatever with the Japanese stream. Meteoro- 
logical observations were kept up in all those years, and 
afterward a complete synopsis of all the recorded meteoro- 
logical data for that region was prepared and issued by the 
Coast Survey with abundant illustrations. One of the re- 
sults of the magnetic observations made by our party, in the 
endeavor to correct the discrepancies between the variation 
of the compass needle as shown on the charts of Bering sea 
and strait and those observed by present navigators, was the 
discovery that the needle had reached its easternmost elon- 
gation and had for some time been receding in the amount 
of its variation. In gathering confirmatory data during 
1874 and 1880 more than forty stations in all parts of the 
territory were occupied. As in the case of the meteorology, 
the literature and all practicable sources were ransacked 
for magnetic records,* and these, with our own observations, 
were utilized in the excellent discussions of Alaskan mag- 
netism by Dr. C. A. Schott. 

In geology we were tutored before sailing in 1865 by Pro- 
fessor Agassiz and carried with us a written schedule of ob- 

*This work was almost entirely done by Mr. Marcus Baker. 



ALASKA AS IT WAS AND IS. 141 

servations to be made on the glaciers. Our explorations 
showed that north of the Alaskan mountains, as in some 
parts of Siberia, there are no glaciers, and there has been no 
glaciation in the ordinary sense, but that in its stead we 
have the singular phenomenon of the Ground-ice formation, 
a state of affairs in which ice plays the part of a more or less 
regularly interstratified rock, above which are the clays con- 
taining remains of the mammoth and other animals, show- 
ing that they became extinct not because of the refrigeration 
of the region, but coincidently with the coming of a warmer 
climate. 

In anthropology, in addition to large collections obtained 
from the living tribes, vocabularies, etc., the names and 
boundaries of all the tribes were obtained for the first time, 
the Eskimo were shown to exist on the Asiatic coast as im- 
migrants driven by war from America, and a very ancient 
confusion of these people with the Asiatic Chukchi was defi- 
nitely cleared up. The data obtained in regard to the various 
branches of the Eskimo stock brought welcome confirmation 
to the theory of Rink on the origin of this people — a theory 
which would probably have been by this time more widely 
known if it had been more sensational and less scientific. 

The patient examination of many village sites, shell-heaps, 
and middens throughout the Aleutian chain resulted in the 
discovery that the successive strata, judged by the imple- 
ments found in them, showed a gradual progress in culture 
from that of the lowest, a crude Eskimo type, to that of the 
uppermost stratum, which contained the evidences of Aleut 
culture of the type immediately before their subjugation by 
the Russians. This was, I believe, at that time the first in- 
stance in which the paleontologic method, if I may call it so, 
had been applied to the study of American shell-heaps. 

In biology, the first object of the work planned by Ken- 
nicott had been the determination of what constituted the 
/auna and flora, and from that knowledge the determination 
of the relations between the Asiatic and American assem- 
blies. This was accomplished in essentials, though it need 



V 



142 DALL. 

not be said that the details will still supply au opportunity 
for study for many a year to come. The enumeration of the 
greater part of the population of mammals, birds, and fishes 
has been accomplished and the plants have been fairly well 
collected, so that we know that the fauna and flora, deduc- 
tion being made of circumboreal species, is essentially Ameri- 
can and not tinctured to any marked extent with Asiatic in- 
gredients. Among the lower animals the brachiopods, 
hydroid zoophytes and corallines; part of the sponges; the 
limpets, chitons, and nudibranchs among the moUusks; have 
been monographically studied. The Crustacea, insects, and 
a large part of the moUusks yet remain to be -worked up 
in a similar manner. 

T% close the record of achievement, I may mention the 
bibliography of Alaskan literature prepared by Mr. Baker 
and myself, which, up to May, 1879, when it went to press, 
comprised 3,832 titles in eleven languages. Since it was 
published by the Coast Survey nearly as many more have 
been accumulated, and the list probably will continue to 
increase from year to year. 

Since my field-work closed, in 1880, Alaskans have not 
been idle. The prospector has invaded the recesses of the 
land, and surveys, explorations, and mountaineering have 
been almost constantly carried on. The tourist has discov- 
ered the country and written books which, although they 
have the resemblance of one pea to another, have neverthe- 
less carried tidings of Alaska to most corners of the Union. 
Alaska in one sense is no longer unknown, and she is even 
beginning to be somewhat understood and appreciated. The 
missionary has been up and down in the land, and has done 
much good in many ways, not without occasional mistakes. 

It was, therefore, with curiosity as well as interest that I 
returned to the territory last May, after an absence of fifteen 
years. In looking back on the summer's experiences, a com- 
parison between the Alaska of 1865 and that of 1895 natur- 
ally suggests itself. I was rash enough twenty-five years 
ago to indulge in prophecy as to the future of the territory. 



ALASKA AS IT WAS AND IS. 143 

I did not count on the inertia of Congress or the stupidity 
of officials, as I might now. Nevertheless progress has been 
made, and a summary of present conditions, perhaps even 
a peep into the future, is not inappropriate at this time. 

Since 1865 the fur-seal fishery has risen, produced its mil- 
lions, and declined to a point where its close in a commercial 
sense may almost be predicted. The first fisherman sought 
the cod in that year, and a modest fleet has kept the busi- 
ness going ever since, with more or less fluctuation in the 
catch. The salmon canner was then i^nknown, but has since 
invaded nearly every important fishing site. The placer 
miner has developed and exhausted the gold of the Stikine 
region, and pushed on to the headwaters of the Yukon and 
its affluents. The clink of the drill and the monotonous 
beat of the stamp-mill are familiar sounds on the quartz 
ledges, which in 1865 lay peacefully under their blankets of 
moss. The whaling fleet has laid its bones on the sandy 
bars of the Arctic coast, while the innovating steam whaler 
has pushed its way past Point Barrow into the very fastness 
of the ice at Herschel island, to find, in its turn, its occupa- 
tion gradually passing away. The imperial sea-otter is on 
the way to becoming a memory, and the Aleuts, his perse- 
cutors, are not unlikely to follow him. 

As regards the inhabitants of the territory, a complete 
change is conspicuous. Some thousands of white fishermen, 
hunters, miners, and prospectors are now scattered along the 
coast and rivers, on the whole a hard-working, orderlj^ set, 
with here and there a rascally whisky smuggler or a stranded 
gentleman. Apart from a few mining camps, the parasites 
who live by the vices of others are few. A country where 
he who would live must work is not attractive to them. Cut 
off from direct contact with the rest of the United States, 
Alaska is really a colony and not a frontier territory in the 
sense usually understood. As such, its needs should have 
been the subject of study and appropriate legislation, the 
neglect of which by Congress so far is bitterly and justly 
resented by the entire population. Into political matters I 



144 DALL. 

shall not enter, but must observe that among the numerous 
ill-paid officials few are well prepared to handle all the diffi- 
cult questions presented in such a community, and the ex- 
ecutive, such as it is, is without the legal authority or the 
proper facilities for governing or even visiting the greater 
part of the region it is supposed to control. The state of the 
law is uncertain, the seat of authority obscure, divided ille- 
gitimately between naval officers, the revenue-cutter service, 
and a powerless governor, who, whatever his wishes and 
intentions, is not peripitted by the law to control anything. 
If it were not for the orderly character and good sense of 
the white population, the territory might easily become a 
pandemonium. This condition of things is disgraceful, and 
reform is urgently needed. 

The change in the native population of southeastern 
Alaska is very marked. In a general way a similar change 
has taken place all over the territory. The primitive con- 
dition of the natives has almost wholly disappeared. The 
turf-covered hut has given way to frame shanties ; log houses 
are rarely built ; the native dress has disappeared, replaced 
by cheap ready-made clothing ; native manufactures, uten- 
sils, weapons, curios, all are gone, or made only in coarse 
facsimile for sale to tourists; the native buys flour and tea, 
cooks his salmon in a frying-pan, and catches his cod or 
halibut with a Birmingham hook and a Gloucester line. In 
the whole of southern Alaska, thanks to the schools, the 
children and many young people speak fairly good English. 
If the present influences continue, another generation will 
see the use of English universal and the native languages 
chiefly obsolete. The day of the ethnological collector is 
past. Southeastern Alaska is swept clean of relics; hardly 
a shaman's grave remains inviolate. 

In other parts of the territory the same is more or less 
true. The native population is focusing about the commer- 
cial centers. The people gather where work and trade aflPbrd 
opportunities, and I have seen more than one pretentious 
church standing empty among the abandoned houses of a 



ALASKA AS IT WAS AND IS. 145 

N. 

formerly prosperous village. There is some admixture of 
blood in marriages between the often attractive " Creole " 
women and the incoming settlers. These marriages are 
often very fruitful, but the pure-blooded natives seem to be 
diminishing. The Aleuts, whose census is accurately made 
annually by the Greek church, are distinctly losing ground, 
and will doubtless pass away in a few generations. The 
same is probably true of the Tlinkit people. As we ap- 
proach the Arctic region, changes of all sorts are less marked 
and civilization has had less effect. Here the subsistence 
of the natives presents serious and increasing diflBculties. 
Their natural food supply has been practically destroyed 
by the whites and by repeating firearms, of which the 
natives have many. The whales are almost extinct, and 
the whaling fleet itself is nearly so. The walrus preceded 
the whale, and the hair seal has never been sujBBciently 
abundant in this region for a sole resource. The chief 
salmon streams are or soon will be monopolized by the 
whites near the sea, and the natives of the upper Yukon 
will go hungry. The present law allows unrestricted fish- 
ing to the natives and a close time of one day a week for 
the whites. The latter hire the natives to fish during the 
prohibited day, and so the salmon have no close time. 
Where a salmon stream is monopolized by one firm, they 
do not usually cut their own throats by taking all the 
salmon, but where there are several competing firms there 
is little respite for the fish. 

The cod fishery was for some years carried on by two 
competing firms, who have now composed their dififerences. 
They had salting stations on shore, and bought fish at so 
much a thousand from fishermen, who used small sailing 
vessels or dories and fished near shore. Now it is found 
cheaper and, for other reasons, preferable to return to the 
older system of fishing in the open sea from a sea-going 
vessel, as on the banks at the east. The preparation of the 
Alaska fish has often been hasty, careless, and inferior to 
that done in the east; so Alaska codfish, originally of equal 



146 DALL. 

quality, are less esteemed commercially than the eastern 
cod. For some reason I do not understand the Pacific 
ocean at best offers but a small market for fish under pres- 
ent conditions, and so I look to see the codfishing industry 
develop slowly and perhaps be the last as it is, in my opin- 
ion^ the most substantial and important of the resources of 
the territory. At present the salmon are commercially 
more important, but unless more effectively supervised and 
regulated they will meet with the same fate as the fisheries 
of California and the Columbia river. There should be a 
resident inspector at every important fishery, and as the 
business is carried on for at most two or three months in 
the year, a vigilant inspection by a cutter or fisheries vessel 
told off for this especial work would counteract any tendency 
to bribe the resident inspector. I have seen 3,500,000 
pounds of canned salmon taken in one season from one 
small stream, representing at least 5,000,000 pounds of eat- 
able fish, and it seems that an annual supply of the best fish 
food like that is worth preserving ; but if the work is to be 
put into the hands of the lowest class of political appointees 
instead of intelligent experts, making the offices will not 
save the fish. 

In the matter of furs we may regard the fur-seal fishery 
as doomed. It is probable that few of the pelagic sealers 
will pay expenses after this season, and two or three years 
are likely to see the end of the business. It is costing us 
much more than the catch is worth now, and the most 
sensible way of ending the matter is generally felt to be the 
destruction at one fell swoop of all the seals remaining on 
the islands and the abandonment of the business. 

The continentalfurs, owing to competition between traders, 
are now selling for nearly their full market value, and little 
profit can be expected from them. They are also growing 
more and more scarce, as the high prices stimulate trapping. 
The natural and satisfactory oflfset to this would be the estab- 
lishment of preserves, such as the " fox farms," of which men- 
tion has been frequently made in the daily press. Many of 



ALASKA AS IT WAS AND IS. 147 

these have been started, and the multitudinous islands ofiFer 
opportunities for many more; but the business is hazardous, 
since there is no protection against poachers, and a very ill- 
judged attempt has been made by the Treasury, I am in- 
formed, to impose, in addition to the annual sum for which 
the island is leased, a " tax " of $5 on each fox killed over 
twenty from each " farm." It is doubtful if the Treasury is 
entitled to tax anybody without the explicit authority of 
Congress, and a tax of 50 per cent, on the gross value of the 
product not only is oppressive and exorbitant, but will put 
a stop to a business which should be encouraged. 

The timber of Alaska, though by no means insignificant, 
is not likely to be much sought for, except for local purposes, 
for many years. I may point out, however, that there are 
millions of acres here densely covered with the spruce best 
suited for wood pulp, and plenty of water power for pulp- 
mills, so that this resource is not without a future. 

A forthcoming report of the United States Geological 
Survey will treat of the existing and prospective mining 
industries. 

To sum up, it may be said that the whaling and sealing 
industries of Alaska are practically exhausted, the fur trade 
is in its decadence, the salmon canning in the full tide of 
prosperity, but conducted in a wasteful and destructive man- 
ner which cannot long be continued with impunity. The 
cod and herring fisheries are imperfectly developed, but 
have a substantial future with proper treatment. Mineral 
resources and timber have hardly been touched. No busi- 
ness-like experiment with sheep or cattle on the islands has 
been tried by competent hands, while the introduction of 
reindeer, though promising well, is still in the experimental 
stage. Socially, the territory is in a transition state, the 
industries of the unexploited wilderness are passing away, 
while the time of steady, business-like development of the 
more latent resources has not yet arrived. The magnificent 
scenery, glaciers, and volcanoes make it certain that Alaska 
will in the future be to the rest of the United States what Nor- 

21 -Bull. Phil. Soc. Wash., Vol. 13. 



148 DALL. 

way is to western Europe — the goal of tourists, hunters, and 
fishermen. Agriculture will be restricted to gardening and 
the culture of quick-growing and hardy vegetables for local 
use. The prosecution of most Alaskan industries being in 
untrained hands, failures and disappointment will no doubt 
be frequent, but when the pressure of population enforces 
more sensible methods the territory will support in rea- 
sonable comfort a fair number of hardy and industrious 
inhabitants. 



List of Scientific Publications based on the work of the Scien- 
tific Corps of the Western Union Telegraph Expedition to 
Alaska (1865-'68), and on the United States Coast Survey ex- 
plorations (1871-80), under the direction of W, H, Dall, in 
the same region. 

The following list is intended to comprise the titles, in 
brief, of the more important publications which have arisen 
directly from the work of the Scientific Corps of the Western 
Union Telegraph Expedition, and of the supplemental ex- 
plorations by parties under my direction, in connection with 
the work of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, in 
the endeavor to complete the interrupted plans of the earlier 
expedition. For a more complete Alaskan bibliography, to 
1879, reference may be had to the publication on that topic 
hereunder cited. The present list is brought to date, but 
publications relating only to Siberia are not included ; it 
does comprise, in addition to articles printed by members of 
the expedition, others by specialists in various departments 
based on collections brought back for study. Considerations 
of space forbid an attempt to make this list complete, but, 
such as it is, it is hoped that it may give a better idea of the 
additions to knowledge which resulted from the labors of 
Kennicott and his associates and serve to illustrate a not un- 
interesting chapter in the exploration of Northwest America. 
It should, however, be clearly understood that a considerable 
amount of exploration, growing out of subsequent events not 



ALASKA AS IT WAS AND IS. 149 

connected with the Telegraph expedition, has produced a re- 
spectable body of literature which finds no place in the pres- 
ent list as above limited. 

The members of the Scientific corps in 1865 were Robert 
Kennicott, H. M. Bannister, F. BischoflF, W. H. Dall, H. W. 
Elliott, Charleff Pease, and J. T. Rothrock. In the scientific 
work done under the auspices of the Coast Survey (1871-^85) 
I was joined by Mark W. Harrington and Marcus Baker, of 
the Survey, and in 1880 by T. H. Bean, of the United States 
National Museum. 

Publications by Bush, Dall, Elliott, Kenuan, and others 
on material not connected with the explorations previously 
enumerated or relating wholly to Siberia are not included in 
the list. 

GEOGRAPHY AND EXPLORATION. 

(See also under Meteorology and Geology.) 

Baker (Marcos). Boundary line between Alaska and Siberia. 

Bull. Phil. Soc. of Wash., iv, pp. 123-133, 1881, with maps. 

Dall (William Healey). Report on the operations of the Scientific Corps of 
the Western Union Telegraph Expedition during the season 
of 1865. 

Proc. Chicago Academy of Sciences, i, pp. 31, 32. 1866. 

Explorations in Russian America. 

American Journal of Science, xlv, pp. 96-99. Jan., 1868. 

Exploration of the interior of Russian America. 

Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, Oct. 3 and 10, 1868. 

Remarks on Alaska. 

Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., iv, pp. 30-37, 268, 293, 294. 1868. 

Die telegraphen expedition auf dem Jukon in Alaska. 

Petermann's Geogr. Mittheil., xv, pp. 361-365, with map. 
Oct., 1869. 

Alaska and its resources. 

Lee & Shepard, Boston, 8*», xii, 628 pp., 15 pi., 1 map. 1870. 

Survey of Alaska. 

House Reps. Exec. Doc. No. 255, 41st Congr., 2d sess., 8°, 
Washington, GovH Printing Office, May 11, 1870. 



150 DALL. 

Dall (William Healey). On exploration in Russian America. 

Proc. Am. Acad. Arts and Sci., viii, pp. 297, 298. 1870. 

Die aofnahme der Aleuten und die untersuchung der Behring 

See. 

In Hydrogr. Mitth. Berlin, 1873, pp. 316, 317. Dec., 1873. 

Forschungen in den Aleutischen Inseln, 1873. 

Petermann's Mitth., xx, pp. 151, 162. March, 1874. 

Explorations in the Aleutian islands and their vicinity. 

Joum. Am. Greogr. Soc., v, pp. 243-245. 1874. 

Harbors of Alaska and the tides and currents in their vicinity. 

U. S. Coast Survey report for 1872, App. 10, pp. 177-212. 1875. 

Arbeiten der Kiistenaufnahme von Alaska in jahre 1874. 

Petermann's Mitth., xxi, pp. 155, 156. May, 1875. 

Report of explorations on the coast of Alaska. 

U. S. Coast Survey report for 1873, App. 11, pp. 111-122. 1875. 

Report on Mount St. Elias, with map and view. 

In same for 1875, App. 10, pp. 157-188 ; extras, Nov., 1875. 

Scientific results of the exploration of Alaska by the parties under 

the charge of W. H. Dall, during the years 1865-1874. 

Washington, W. H. Dall, 1876-1880, 8«, pp. 1-276, with 36 
plates. 

[A uniformly pigged reprint of papers by Dall and others on 
various topics. The papers will be referred to separately 
here.] 

Neuere Forschungen auf den Aleuten. 

Deutsche Geogr. Blatt., Bremen, ii, pp. 38-43 and 84-101, 
with map, Jan. to April, 1878. 

Alaska forschungen im Sommer 1880. 

Petermann's Geogr. Mitth. 1881, pp. 46, 47. Feb., 1881. 

U. S. Coast Survey operations in the vicinity of Bering strait. 

Proc. Royal Geogr. Soc., London, Jan., 1881, pp. 47-49. 

Pacific Coast Pilot. Coast and islands of Alaska. Dixon entrance 

to Yakutat bay with the Inland passage. Washington, U. S. 
Coast Survey, 1883. 

Royal 8°, pp. x, 333, 16 maps and 13 plates. 
The appendices include : 

List of charts useful for navigation in the region. 

Isogonic chart of Alaska and adjacent region. 



ALASKA AS IT WAS AND IS. 151 

List of astronomical positions and magnetic declinations. 

Table of distances. Table of routes. 

Note on pronunciation of native and Russian names. 

Meteorological tables. Index to the work. 

Indices to geographical authorities used in compiling the 
work and not indexed in the original, comprising Beechey, 
Billings, Cook and King, Dixon, Langsdorff, La Perouse, 
Lisianski, Liitk^, Meares, Portlock, Vancouver, and the 
voyage of the Sutil and Mexicana (Alcala Galiano). 

Dall (William Healey). Alaska. 

A.merican Cyclopedia, New York, Appleton, 1883,. with map. 

On the position of Mt. St. Elias and the Schwatka expedition to 

Alaska. 

Proc. Royal Geogr. Soc, x, No. 7, pp. 444, 445. July, 1887. 

Alaska revisited. I-VI. 

The Nation, New York, 1895, vol. 61, No. 1566, pp. 6, 7, July 4 ; 
No. 1567, p. 24, July 11 ; No. 1572, p. 113, Aug. 15 ; No. 1573, 
pp. 131, 132, Aug. 22; No. 1576, p. 183, Sept. 12; No. 1578, 
p. 220, Sept. 26. Also in the New York Evening Post of 
July 4, 11, Aug. 19, 22, and Sept. 21, 28, 1895. 

Rothrock (Joseph Trimble). Northwestern North America ; its resources 
and inhabitants. 

Joum. Am. Geogr. Soc, iv, pp. 393-415. New York, 1874. 

Whymper (Frederick). A journey from Norton sound, Bering sea, to 
Fort Youkon. 
Journ. Roy. Geogr. Soc, London, xxxviii, pp. 219-237. 1868. 

METEOROLOGY AND HYDROLOGY. 

Bannister (Henry Marty n). Meteorolo^cal correspondence. 
Smithsonian Report for 1866, pp. 411, 412. 1867. 

Dall (W. H.) Coast Pilot of Alaska. Appendix I, "Meteorology and Bib- 
liography. 

376 pp., 13 pi., 28 maps, 4**, U. S. Coast Survey, 1879. 

TJeber das Klima von Alaska. 

Zeitschr. der Oesterreichischen Ges. fiir Meteorologie, xvii, 
pp. 443, 444. Nov., 1882. 8°. 

Hydrologie des Bering-Meeres und der benachbarten gewasser. 

Petermann's Mitth., pp. 361-380, with map and sections, and 
pp. 443-448. Oct. to Nov., 1881. 



d 



I 



152 DALL. 

Dall (W. H.) The currents and temperatures of Bering sea and the ad- 
jacent waters. 

U. S. €k)a8t Survey Report for 1880, App. No. 16, separately 
printed, 4®, pp. 46, maps and section. March, 1882. 

MAGNETISM. 

Schott (Charles A.) TJ. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. Methods and re- 
sults. Terrestrial magnetism . Collection of results for declina- 
tion, dip, and intensity (etc.). 

TJ. S. Coast Survey Report for 1881, App. No. 9 (separately 
issued), 67 pp., 4?, 1882; cf. pp. 6-7, 37-39. 

On the secular variation of the magnetic declination in the United 

States (etc.). 

In the same. Report for 1882, Appendices 12, 13, pp. 211-328 ; 
also separately; cf. pp. 243, 246-249, 285, and isogenic 
chart of Alaska. 

The magnetic observations made on Bering's first voyage (etc.). 

U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey Bull. No. 20, vol. i, pp. 
211-214. 1891. 

HISTORY, BIBLIOGRAPHY, AND ECONOMICS. 

Dall (W. H.) Robert Kennicott. 

Trans. Chicago Acad. Sci., i, part 2, pp. 133-226, with por- 
trait. 1869. 

A biographical sketch prepared by a committee of the 
Academy appointed at the meeting of Nov. 13, 1866. Dall's 
contribution occupies pp. 216-224. 

Is Alaska a paying investment ? 

Harper's Monthly Magazine, xliv, Jan., 1872, pp. 252-257. 

Abstract of the population of the native tribes of Alaska. 

U. S. Comm'r Indian AflGairs, Rep. for 1874, pp. 198-201. 1875. 

Documents relating to the Alaskan boundary question. 

Senate Ex. Doc No. 146, 50th Congr., 2d sess. Washington, 
Govt. Printing Office, 1889, 8®, pp. 1-40, charts 10-17. 

A critical review of Bering's first expedition, 1725-1730, together 

with a translation of his original report upon it, with a map. 

Nat. Greogr. Mag., ii, No. 2, June, 1890, pp. 1-57. 

' Geographical explorations. Early expeditions to the region of 
Bering sea and strait. From the reports and journals of Vitus 



ALASKA AS IT WAS AND IS. 153 

Ivanovich Bering, translated by William Healey Dall. Wash- 
ington, Government Printing Office, 1891. 

U. S. Coast Survey, Report for 1890, Appendix 19, pp. 759- 
774, 4°, with two maps. March, 1891. 

This paper, separately printed as above with title page and 
cover, appears in the annual volume with the following 
heading : 

*' Notes on an original manuscript chart of Bering's expedi- 
tion of 1725-1730, and on an original manuscript chart of his 
second expedition, together with a summary of a journal 
of the first expedition kept by Peter Chaplin and now first 
rendered into English from Bergh's Russian version." 

Dall (W. H.) and Baker (Marcus). Partial list of charts, maps, and pub- 
lications relating to Alaska and the adjacent region. 

U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, Pacific Coast Pilot, Alaska, 
second series, Appendix 1, pp. 163-375, 4®, Washington, 
1879 ; also separately. 

GEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY. 
(See also Botany.) 

Dall (W. H.) Observations on the geology of Alaska. 

U. S. Coast Survey, Coast Pilot of Alaska, part 1, pp. 193-202. 
1869. 

Notes on Alaska and the vicinity of Bering strait. 

Am. Joum. Science, third series, xxi, pp. 104-111, with maps. 
Feb., 1881. 

Note on Alaska Tertiary deposits. 

Am. Journ. Science, third series, xxiv, pp. 67, 68, July, 1882. 

Glaciation in Alaska. 

Proc. Phil. Soc. of Washington, 1883, vol. vi, pp. 33-36. 

A new volcanic island in Alaska. 

Science, iii, No. 61, Jan. 25, 1884, pp. 89-93. 

Further notes on Bogosloff island. 

Science, v, No. 101, Jan. 9, 1885, pp. 32, 33. 

Bulletin of the U. S. Geological Survey, No. 84. Correlation Papers. 

Neocene, by William Healey Dall and Gilbert Dennison Harris ; 
Washington, Government Printing Office, 1892, 8®, 349 pp., 
with many illustrations and 3 maps. 

Geology of Alaska, pp. 232-268, with map. 



154 DALL. 

White (Charles A.) On a small collection of Mesozoic fossils obtained in 
Alaska by Mr. W. H. Dall (etc.). 

U. S. Gfeol. Survey, Bulletin No. 4, Washington, the Survey, 
1884, pp. 10-15, pL vi. • 

FAUNAL DISTRIBUTION. 

Dall (W. H.) On the trend of the Rocky Mountain range north of lati- 
tude 60°, and its influence on founal distribution. 

Proc. Am. Assoc. Adv. Sci., xviii, p. 247. Aug., 1869. 

On the marine faunal regions of the North Pacific (etc.). 

Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., 1876, pp. 205-208; Sci. Results, 
pp. 1-4. Pec, 1876. 

Faunal regions. Distribution of plants and animals. Charts 

xxvii and xxviii. 

In Coast Pilot of Alaska, App. I, Meteorology. Washington, 
U. S. Coast Survey, 1879. 

ANTHROPOLOGY. 

Dall (W. H.) On the distribution of the native tribes of Alaska. 

Proc. Am. Assoc. Adv. Sci., 18th (Salem) meeting, 1869, xviii, 
pp. 263-273, 1870. Synopsis in Am. Nat. Oct., 1869. 

On prehistoric remains in the Aleutian islands. 

Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., iv, pp. 283-287. Nov., 1872. 

On further examinations of the Amaknak cave. 

Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., v, pp. 196-200. 1873. 

Notes on some Aleut mummies. 

Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., v, pp. 399, 400. Oct., 1874. 

Alaskan mummies. 

Am. Naturalist, ix, pp. 433-440. Aug., 1875. 

Tribes of the extreme Northwest. 

Art. I. On the distribution and nomenclature of the native 
tribes of Alaska and the adjacent territory, with a map, 
pp. 7-40. 

Art. II. On succession in the shell heaps of the Aleutian 
islands, pp. 41-91. 

Art. III. Remarks on the origin of the Innuit, pp. 93-106^ 

Terms of relationship used by the Innuit, pp. 117-119. 

Table showing relationship of tribes of Puget sound, etc., 
p. 241. 

In Contr. to Am. Ethnology, i, 4°, Washington, Gov't Print- 
ing Office, July, 1877 ; extras, May, 1877. 



^ 



i 






ALASKA AS IT WAS AND IS. 155 

Dall (W. H. ) Social life among our aborigines. 

Am. Naturalist, xii, pp. 1-10. Jan., 1878. 

On the remains of later prehistoric man obtained from caves in 

the Catharina archipelago, Alaska Territory (etc.). 

Smithsonian Contr. to Knowledge, 318, 4°, pp. 40, 10 pi. 1878. 



The Chukches and their neighbors in the northeastern extremity 

of Siberia. 

Proc. Roy. Geogr. Soc, London, Sept., 1881, pp. 568-570. 

On the so-called Chuk6hi and NamoUo people of Eastern Siberia. 

Am. Naturalist, xv, 857-868. Nov., 1881. 

On masks, labrets, and certain aboriginal customs, with an 

enquiry into the bearing of their geographical distribution. 

U. S. Bureau of Ethn., Annual Rep. for 1882, Washington, 
1884, 8°, pp. 67-200, pi. v-xxix ; also separately. 

The native tribes of Alaska : An address before the Section of 

Anthropology of the American Association for the Advance- 
' ' ment of Science, at Ann Arbor, August, 1885, by William H. 

Dall, vice-president. 

Proc. A. A. A. S., xxxiv, 1885, pp. (1-19) 363-379. 

Otis (George A.) List of the specimens of the anatomical section of the 
U. S. Army Medical Museum. 

Washington, Army Med. Museum, 1880, 8**, pp. viii, 194; 
cf. pp. 35-39, 54-56, 166, 167, for description and measure- 
ments of crania. 

Wyman (Jeffries). Observations on crania. 

Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., xi, pp. 440-462, 1868, 8°, cuts; 
also separately. 

Z05L0GY. 

Mammals. 

Bannister (Henry Martyn). The Esquimaux dog. 

Am. Naturalist, iii. No. 10, Dec, 1869, pp. 522-530. 

Coues (Elliott) On the Muridse. 

Philadelphia, Collins, 1874 [N. W. Boundary Survey], 8**, 
pp, 28. Based partly on Alaskan material. 

Dall (W. H.) List of the mammalia of Alaska. 

Alaska and its Resources, pp. 576-578. 1870. 

f* 22— Bull. Phil. Soc, Wash., Vol. 13. 



156 DALL. 

Dall (W. H.) Catalogae of the Getaoea of the north Pacific ocean, with 
oeteological notes, etc. 

In Scammon's Marine Mammalia of the Northwest Coast of 
North America, 4®, San Francisco, 1874; Appendix, pp. 
278-307. Separately printed, 1873. 

True (Frederick W. ) On the skeleton of Phoca (Histriophoca) fasciata, 
Zimmerman. 

Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vi, 1883, pp. 417-426, pi. xi-xiv. 1884. 

On a new species of porpoise, Phocsena Dalli, from Alaska. 

The same, viii, 1885, pp. 95-98, pi. ii-v. 

Birds. 

Baird (Spencer F.) On additions to the hird fEiuna of North America 
made hy the Scientific Corps of the Russo- American Telegraph 
Expedition. 

Trans. Chicago Acad. Sci., i, pp. 311-325, pL 27-34. 1869. 

Bean (Tarleton H.) Our unique spoon-billed sandpiper. 

Forest and Stream, xvi. No. 12, p. 225. April 21, 1881. 

Notes on birds collected during the summer of 1880 in Alaska. 

Proc. TJ. S. Nat. Mus., 1882, pp. 144-173. 1882. 

Cabanis (J.) Ueber Pyrrhula cassini und P. cineracea aus Siberien. 

Jour, fiir Omith., 1881, p. 318 ; 1872, pp. 315, 316 ; 1873, pp. 
314, 315. 

Dall (W. H.) and Bannister (H. M.) list of the birds of Alaska, with 
biographical notes. 

Trans. Chicago Acad. Sci., i, pp. 267-310, pi. xxvii-xxxiv. 
1869. 

Dall (W. H.) Birds of Alaska. 

Alaska and its resources, pp. 580-586. 1870. 

Notes on the avifauna of the Aleutian islands from UnaJashka 

eastward. 

Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., v, pp. 25-35. Feb., 1873. 

Notes on the avi&una of the Aleutian islands, especially those 

west of Unalashka. 

Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., v, pp. 270-281. March, 1874. 

Newton (Alfred). Notes on the birds of the Yukon region. 

The Ibis, 2d series, vi, p. 521. 1870. 

Tristram (H. B.) Notes on some passerine birds, chiefly palearctic. 
The Ibis, 3d series, i, No. 2, pp. 231-234. 1871. 



ALASKA AS IT WAS AND IS. 157 

Fish and FiBheries. 

Bean (Tarleton H.) Description of a new fish from Alaska (etc.)* 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., ii, pp. 212-218. 1879. 

" Descriptions of some new genera and species of Alaskan fishes. 
The same, pp. 353-359. 1880. 

Descriptions of new fishes from Alaska and Siberia. 

The same, iv, pp. 144-159. 1881. 

A preliminary catalogue of the fishes of Alaskan and adjacent 

waters. 

The same, v, pp. 239-272. 1881. 

Description of a new species of Alepidosaarus from Alaska. 

The same, vi, pp. 661-663. 1883. 

A partial bibliography of the fishes of the Pacific coast of the 

United States and of Alaska (etc.). 

The same, iv, pp. 312-317. 1882. 

List of fishes known to occur in the Arctic ocean north of Bering 

strait. 

Report on the cruise of the Corwin. Washington, Govern- 
ment Printing Office, 1883, pp. 118-120, 4°. 

The fishery resources and fishing grounds of Alaska. 

Fishing industries of the TJ. S., i, sect. 3, pp. 81-113. 1887. 

The codfishery of Alaska. 

Fishing industries of the U. S., i, sect 5, p. 198. 1887. 

The Burbot, Lota maculosa. 

Fishing industries of the TJ. S., i, sect. 7. 1887. 

Dall (W. H.) The food-fishes of Alaska. 

U. S. Com'r Agriculture, Report for 1870, pp. 375-392. 1871. 

Milner (James W.) Notes on the grayling of North America (etc.). 

TJ. S. Com'r Fisheries, Report for 1872-73, pp. 729-742. 1874. 

MoUusca and Brachiopoda, 

Bergh (Rudolph). On the nudibranchiate gastropod mollusca of the 
north Pacific ocean, with special reference to those of Alaska. 
PartL 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sd., Phila., for 1879, pp. 71-132, 1. pi-viii. 
May, 1879. 

PartlL 

In the same, pp. 40-127, pi. i-viii. 1880. 

The two papers above cited appear in Sci. Res. Expl. of Alaska, 
pp. 127-276, pi. i-xvi. 



158 DALL. 

Dall (W. H.) Materials for a monograph of the £unily Lepetidse. 
Am. Joum. Conch., v, pp. 140-150. 1869. 



:?-^ 



On the Limpets, with special reference to the species of the west 
coast of America and to a more natural classification of the 
group. 

In same, vi, pp. 228-282, pi. xiv-xvii. April, 1871. 

Diagnoses of sixty new forms of moUusks from the west coast of 
America and the North Pacific ocean. 

In same, vii, pp. 93-160, pi. xiii-xvi. Oct., 1871. 

Preliminary descriptions of new species of moUusks from the 
northwest coast of America. 

Proc. Gala. Acad. Sci.. iv, pp. 270, 271. Oct., 1872. 

Preliminary descriptions of new species of moUusks from the 
northwest coast of America. 

In same, iv, pp. 302, 303. Dec., 1872. 

Descriptions of new species of moUusca from the coast of Alaska, ^ 

with notes on some rare forms. 

In same, v, pp. 57-62. April, 1873. 

Catalogue of shells from Bering strait (etc.). 
In same, v, pp. 246-253. 1874. 

Preliminary descriptions of new species of moUusks from the 
northwest coast of America. 

In same, p. 6 ; extras, March 19, 1877. 

Aleutian cephalopods. 

Am. Nat., vii. No. 8, Aug., 1873, pp. 484, 485. 

Report on the brachiopoda of Alaska (etc.). 

Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila. 1877, pp. 155-170 ; Sci. Results, 
art. iii, pp. 45-62. July, 1877. 

Descriptions of new forms of moUusks from Alaska (etc.). 

Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1878, pp. 1-3. Feb., 1878. -^ I 

Report on the Limpets and Chitons of the Alaskan and Arctic ' 

regions. 

Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1879, pp. 281-344, pi. i-v. 1879. Sci. 
Results Expl. Alaska, pp. 63-126., pi. i-v. 

Report on the moUusca of the Commander islands, Bering sea, 
collected by Leonard Stejneger in 1882 and 1883. 

Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1884, pp. 340-349, pi. ii. 1884. 



ALASKA AS IT WAS AND IS. 159 

't^_ Dall (W. H.) New or specially interesting shells of the Point Barrow 

f^ expedition. 

Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1884, pp. 523-526, pi. ii. 1884. 

Report on Bering island mollusca. 

Proc. XT. S. Nat. Mus. 1886, pp. 209-219. 1886. 

Supplementary notes on some species of moUusks of the Bering 

sea and vicinity. 

Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1886, pp. 297-309, pi. iii, iv. Oct. , 1886. 

Report on the mollusks. 

In Report of the International Polar Expedition to Point 
Barrow, Washington, Gov't, 1885, 4®, pp. 177-184, with 
plate. 

r- On the genus Corolla (Dall). 

The Nautilus, iii. No. 3, July, 1889, pp. 30, 31. 

Notes on some recent brachiopods. 

Proc. Acad. Nat! Sci., Phila. for 1891, pp. 172-175, pi. iv. 

i^^ On some new or interesting west American shells (etc.). 

Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xiv, pp. 173-191. 1891. See also the 
same, xvii, pp. 706-733, pi. xxv-xxxii. 1895. 

I.ea (Isaac). Description of five new species of Unionidse (etc.). 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., xix, p. 81. 1867. 

CrvMacea. 

Benedict (James E. ) Preliminary descriptions of thirtynaeven new species 
of hermit crabs of the genus Eupagurus. 

Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xv, pp. 1-26, 1892. 

Corystoid crabs of the genera Telmessus and Erimacrus. 

Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xv, pp. 223-230, pi. xxv-xxvii. 1892. 

Descriptions of new genera and species of crabs of the family 

Lithodidse, etc. 

Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xvii, pp. 479-488. 1894. 

*" Dall (W. H.) Descriptions of three new species of Crustacea, parasitic on 

m the cetacea of the northwest coast of America. 

Proc. Gal. Acad. Sci., iv. pp. 281-283. Nov., 1872. 

On the parasites of the cetaceans of the northwest coast of 

I America, with descriptions of new forms. 

j In same, iv. pp. 299-301. Dec., 1872. 

! On new parasitic Crustacea from the northwest coast of America. 

In same, v, pp. 254, 255. March, 1874. 



/ 



* - • ^ : - - - •• : 
/ '.* - * • • 



to « 



150 DALL. 

DaJl (William Healey). On exploration in Russian America. 

Proc. Am. Acad. Arts and Sci., viii, pp. 297, 298. 1870. 

Die aufnahme der Aleuten und die untersuchung der Behring 

See. 

In Hydrogr. Mitth. Berlin, 1873, pp. 316, 317. Dec., 1873. 

Forschungen in den Aleutischen Inseln, 1873. 

Petermann*s Mitth., xx, pp. 151, 152. March, 1874. 

Explorations in the Aleutian islands and their vicinity. 

Journ. Am. Geogr. Soc, v, pp. 243-245. 1874. 

Harbors of Alaska and the tides and currents in their vicinity. 

U. S. Coast Survey report for 1872, App. 10, pp. 177-212. 1876. 

Arbeiten der Kustenaufnahme von Alaska in jahre 1874. 

Petermann's Mitth., xxi, pp. 155, 156. May, 1875. 

Report of explorations on the coast of Alaska. 

TJ. S. Coast Survey report for 1873, App. 11, pp. 111-122. 1875. 

Report on Mount St. Elias, with map and view. 

In same for 1875, App. 10, pp. 157-188 ; extras, Nov., 1875. 

Scientific results of the exploration of Alaska by the parties under 

the charge of W. H. Dall, during the years 1865-1874. 

Washington, W. H. Dall, 1876-1880, 8°, pp. 1-276, with 36 
plates. 

[A uniformly p^ged reprint of papers by Dall and others on 
various topics. The papers will be referred to separately 
here.] 

Neuere Forschungen auf den Aleuten. 

Deutsche Geogr. Blatt., Bremen, ii, pp. 38-43 and 84-101, 
with map, Jan. to April, 1878. 

Alaska forschungen im Sommer 1880. 

Petermann's Geogr. Mitth. 1881, pp. 46, 47. Feb., 1881. 

U. S. Coast Survey operations in the vicinity of Bering strait. 

Proc. Royal Geogr. Soc, London, Jan., 1881, pp. 47-49. 

Pacific Coast Pilot Coast and islands of Alaska. Dixon entrance 

to Yakutat bay with the Inland passage. Washington, TJ. S. 
Coast Survey, 1883. 

Royal 8°, pp. x, 333, 16 maps and 13 plates. 
The appendices include : 

List of charts useful for navigation in the region. 

Isogonic chart of Alaska and adjacent region. 



ALASKA AS IT WAS AND IS. 151 

List of astronomical positions and magnetic declinations. 

Table of distances. Table of routes. 

Note on pronunciation of native and Russian names. 

Meteorological tables. Index to the work. 

Indices to geographical authorities used in compiling the 
work and not indexed in the original^ comprising Beechey, 
Billings, Cook and King, Dixon, Langsdorff, La Perouse, 
Lisianski, Lutk6, Meares, Portlock, Vancouver, and the 
voyage of the Sutil and Mexicana (Alcala Galiano). 

Dall (William Healey). Alaska. 

American Cyclopedia, New York, Appleton, 1883, with map. 

On the position of Mt. St. Elias and the Schwatka expedition to 

Alaska. 

Proc. Royal Geogr. Soc, x, No. 7, pp. 444, 445. July, 1887. 



Alaska revisited. I- VI. 

The Nation, New York, 1895, vol. 61, No. 1566, pp. 6, 7, July 4 ; 
No. 1567, p. 24, July 11 ; No. 1572, p. 113, Aug. 15 ; No. 1573, 
pp. 131, 132, Aug. 22 ; No. 1576, p. 183, Sept. 12 ; No. 1578, 
p. 220, Sept. 26. Also in the New York Evening Post of 
July 4, 11, Aug. 19, 22, and Sept. 21, 28, 1895. 

Rothrock (Joseph Trimble). Northwestern North America ; its resources 
and inhabitants. 

Journ. Am. Geogr. Soc, iv, pp. 393-415. New York, 1874. 

Whymper (Frederick). A journey from Norton sound, Bering sea, to 
Fort Youkon. 
Journ. Roy. Geogr. Soc, London, xxxviii, pp. 219-237. 1868. 

METEOROLOGY AND HYDROLOGY. 

Bannister (Henry Martyn). Meteorolo^cal correspondence. 
Smithsonian Report for 1866, pp. 411, 412. 1867. 

Dall ( W. H.) Coast Pilot of Alaska. Appendix I, "Meteorology and Bib- 
liography. 

376 pp., 13 pi., 28 maps, 4*», U. S. Coast Survey, 1879. 

TJeber das Klima von Alaska. 

Zeitschr. der Oesterreichischen Ges. fiir Meteorologie, xvii, 
pp. 443, 444. Nov., 1882. 8°. 

Hydrologie des Bering-Meeres und der benachbarten gewasser. 

Petermann's Mitth., pp. 361-380, with map and sections, and 
pp. 443-448. Oct. to Nov., 1881. 



158 DALL. 

Dall (W. H.) Materials for a monograph of the family Lepetidae. 
Am. Journ. Conch., v, pp. 140-150. 1869. 



On the Limpets, with special reference to the species of the west 
coast of America and to a more natural classification of the 
group. 

In same, vi, pp. 228-282, pi. xiv-xvii. April, 1871. 

Diagnoses of sixty new forms of mollusks from the west coast of 
America and the North Pacific ocean. 

In same, vii, pp. 93-160, pi. xiii-xvi. Oct., 1871. 

Preliminary descriptions of new species of mollusks from the 
northwest coast of America. 

Proc. Gala. Acad. Sci.. iv, pp. 270, 271. Oct., 1872. 

Preliminary descriptions of new species of mollusks from the 
northwest coast of America. 

In same, iv, pp. 302, 303. Dec., 1872. 

Descriptions of new species of moUusca from the coast of Alaska, 
with notes on some rare forms. 

In same, v, pp. 57-62. April, 1873. 

Catalogue of shells from Bering strait (etc.). 
In same, v, pp. 246-253. 1874. 

Preliminary descriptions of new species of mollusks from the 
northwest coast of America. 

In same, p. 6 ; extras, March 19, 1877. 

Aleutian cephalopods. 

Am. Nat., vii. No. 8, Aug., 1873, pp. 484, 485. 

Report on the brachiopoda of Alaska (etc.). 

Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila. 1877, pp. 155-170 ; Sci. Results, 
art. iii, pp. 45-62. July, 1877. 

Descriptions of new forms of mollusks from Alaska (etc.). 
Proc. TJ. S. Nat. Mus., 1878, pp. 1-3. Feb., 1878. 

Report on the Limpets and Chitons of the Alaskan and Arctic 
regions. 

Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1879, pp. 281-344, pi. i-v. 1879. Sci. 
Results Expl. Alaska, pp. 63-126, pi. i-v. 

Report on the moUusca of the Commander islands, Bering sea, 
collected by Leonard Stejneger in 1882 and 1883. 

Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1884, pp. 340-349, pi. ii. 1884.